Morphine is a non-synthetic narcotic with a high potential for abuse and is derived from opium. It is used for the treatment of pain.
In the United States, a small percentage of the morphine obtained from opium is used directly for pharmaceutical products. The remaining morphine is processed into codeine and other derivatives.
- Dreamer, Emsel, First Line, God’s Drug, Hows, M.S., Mister Blue, Morf, Morpho, and Unkie
Morphine is marketed under generic and brand name products, including:
- MS-Contin, Oramorph SR, MSIR, Roxanol, Kadian, and RMS
Methods of abuse
Traditionally, morphine was almost exclusively used by injection, but the variety of pharmaceutical forms that it is marketed as today support its use by oral and other routes of administration.
- Oral solutions, immediate-and extended-release tablets and capsules, and injectable preparations
Those dependent on morphine prefer injection because the drug enters the bloodstream more quickly.
Morphine’s effects include euphoria and relief of pain. Chronic use of morphine results in tolerance and physical and psychological dependence.
Morphine use results in relief from physical pain, decrease in hunger, and inhibition of the cough reflex.
- Cold and clammy skin, lowered blood pressure, sleepiness, slowed breathing, slow pulse rate, coma, and possible death
Drugs with similar effects
- Opium, codeine, heroin, methadone, hydrocodone, fentanyl, and oxycodone
Legal status in the United States
Morphine is a Schedule II narcotic under the Controlled Substances Act.