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Morphine


Morphine is a non-synthetic narcotic with a high potential for abuse and is derived from opium. It is used for the treatment of pain.

Origin

In the United States, a small percentage of the morphine obtained from opium is used directly for pharmaceutical products. The remaining morphine is processed into codeine and other derivatives.

Street names

  • Dreamer, Emsel, First Line, God’s Drug, Hows, M.S., Mister Blue, Morf, Morpho, and Unkie

Appearance

Morphine is marketed under generic and brand name products, including:

  • MS-Contin, Oramorph SR, MSIR, Roxanol, Kadian, and RMS

Methods of abuse

Traditionally, morphine was almost exclusively used by injection, but the variety of pharmaceutical forms that it is marketed as today support its use by oral and other routes of administration.

Forms include:

  • Oral solutions, immediate-and extended-release tablets and capsules, and injectable preparations

Those dependent on morphine prefer injection because the drug enters the bloodstream more quickly.

Mental effects

Morphine’s effects include euphoria and relief of pain. Chronic use of morphine results in tolerance and physical and psychological dependence.

Physical effects

Morphine use results in relief from physical pain, decrease in hunger, and inhibition of the cough reflex.

Overdose effects

  • Cold and clammy skin, lowered blood pressure, sleepiness, slowed breathing, slow pulse rate, coma, and possible death

Drugs with similar effects

  • Opium, codeine, heroin, methadone, hydrocodone, fentanyl, and oxycodone

Legal status in the United States

Morphine is a Schedule II narcotic under the Controlled Substances Act.

Source: DEA Drug Fact Sheet - Morphine
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